In 1855, Lt. William Emory was ordered to identify the boundary line between Mexico and the southern borders of Arizona and California. Lt. Emory kept detailed and accurate notes about the plants, animals, and archaeology of the American Southwest. This was the first official American diary written about the land of Arizona. Lt. Emory’s notes and drawings gave Americans their first scientific look at the plants, animals, and land of Arizona. Lieutenant William Emory was the first United States  Army officer to scientifically study the American  Southwest. He kept detailed notes about the plants,  animals, and geography of the land. This was the first  American diary written about the land that would  become Arizona. April, 1861  American Civil  War begins. April, 1862 Battle of  Picacho Peak. February, 1863  President Lincoln  signs bill creating  Arizona Territory. June, 1868 Navajo  Indians return to  Canyon de Chelly. 1874 Estevan Ochoa  gives $5,000 to build  Arizona’s first public  school in Tucson. 1870 1902 February, 1862  Confederate troops  occupy Tucson. June, 1862 Union troops   re-occupy Tucson. April, 1864 Navajo Long  Walk begins. 1873 Arizona City changes name  to Yuma. 1902 Charles  Poston, Father  of Arizona, dies  in Phoenix. Chapter 7 • Finding an Identity 73