The Mexica and their allies had created the most powerful empire in all the Americas. They also had many religious and art items made of gold. Yet Cortes’ army, with the help of an Indian girl called Marina, was able to defeat the great Aztec Empire after long and terrible battles. Cortes ordered the City of Tenochtitlan be torn down and a new city built in its place. He called this new city, the City of Mexico. It is known today as Mexico City. New Spanish officials arrived in Mexico City to take over the governing of what was now called New Spain. In the year 1536 four Spanish citizens and their Moorish slave were found in the northern desert. They had been living with various Indian tribes for MEXICA over eight years. Cabeza de Vaca was the leader of these men. He told the Viceroy of New Spain stories about seven fabled cities of gold to the north. These cities were called Cibola. The Viceroy wanted to know if the stories of these golden cities were true. This map shows the land area of the great Mexica Empire. Notice how their empire stretched from the Pacific Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico. Today the Mexica Indians are known as the Aztecs. March 1687 Father Eusebio Francisco Kino arrives in the Pimeria Alta. March 1711 Father Eusebio Francisco Kino dies in Magdalena, Sonora, Mexico. June 1752 Presidio San Ignacio de Tubac is established. 1650 1700 1750 July 1736 Silver discovered at a place known as Arizonac. 1800 August 1775 Presidio de San Agustin de Tucson is established. Chapter 5 • The Second People: Explorers and Settlers  51