Glossary The Glossary contains important history and social science words and their definitions, listed in alphabetical order. The page number at the end of the definition tells where the word is first used in this book. Guide words at the top of each page help you quickly locate the word you need to find. Pronunciation Guide Stress the syllable sounds in bold face. For instance adaptation [ad-uhp-tey-shuhn] and civilization [siv-uh-luh-zey-shuhn]. A adaptation  [ad-uhp-tey-shuhn] Changing to meet new conditions. (138) agriculture  [ag-ri-kuhl-cher] Farming. (26) amendment  [uh-mend-muhnt] A change. (95) ancestor  [an-ses-ter] An early family member. (30) anthropologist  [an-thruh-pol-uh-jist] A scientist who works with human social relations and their culture. (166) aqueduct  [ak-wi-duhkt] A man made canal. (104) archaeologist  [ahr-kee-ol-uh-jist] A scientist who studies artifacts that early people left behind to find out how those people lived. (34) artifact  [ahr-tuh-fakt] An object made by people in the past. (99) B barbarians  [bahr-bair-ee-uhns] New people who moved into the lands once controlled by Rome. (42) bill  [bil] A proposed law. (96) Buffalo Soldiers  [buhf-uh-loh sohl-jer] African-American soldiers who fought in the Apache Wars. (89) C canal  [kuh-nal] Waterway dug across land. (102) candidate  [kan-di-deyt] A person who runs for office in an election. (115) 184 century  sen-chuh-ree] A period of 100 years. (12) cession  [sesh-uhn] Something that is given up, such as land. (67) Chichen Itza  [chee-chen eet-sah] Ancient Mayan city found in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. (47) Cibola  [see-buh-luh] Fabled Seven Cities of Gold. (53) civil rights  [siv-uhl rahyts] The rights of citizens to equal treatment. (154) civil war  [siv-uhl wawr] A war between two groups within the same country. (75) civilian  [si-vil-yuhn] A person who is not in the military. (155) civilization  [siv-uh-luh-zey-shuhn] A group of people with forms of religion and ways of governing. (41) cliff-dwelling  [klif dwel-ing] Home made of mud and stone built under a cliff of a mountain. (32) climate  [klahy-mit] The kind of weather a place has over a long period of time. (11) compass rose  [kuhm-puhs rohz] A symbol found on a map that indicates the four cardinal directions. (12) Confederate  [kuhn-fed-er-it] A soldier who fought for the South during the American Civil War. (75) conquistador  [kon-kwis-tuh-dawr] A Spanish explorer or soldier who conquered lands in North and South America. (53) constitution  [kon-sti-too-shuhn] A written plan of government. (96)