Chapter 5 The Second People: Standards’ Vocabulary Hernan Cortes Mexica Indians Aztecs Marina Cabeza de Vaca Fray Marcos de Niza Estevan conquistador Francisco Vásquez de Coronado Hawikuh Zuni Indians Father Kino Pimeria Alta missions San Xavier del Bac presidio Tubac Explorers and Settlers The Spanish came to Mexico after Christopher Columbus’ voyages to the Americas. They first landed on the shore of Mexico in July, 1519. They said they came to this new land for “God, glory, and gold.” During the years 1519–1521, Hernan Cortes led an army that conquered the great empire of the Mexica (ma-she-ka) Indians. The Mexica Indians and their close Indian allies are known today as the Aztecs. They were ruled by King Motecuhzoma II. Modern historians call him Montezuma II. The Mexica had built a beautiful city in a rich, mountain valley of Central Mexico. Their city may have had a population of over 300,000 people. So grand was this city, called Tenochtitlan (Ten-o-chit-lawn), that the Spanish soldiers wrote and spoke of their amazement. They wrote that the beauty of the city was grander than any city of Europe. Some Spanish soldiers even thought they were dreaming. 1492 Christopher Columbus lands on an island of the Bahamas. July 1536 Cabeza de Vaca, Estevan and 2 others found in the northern frontier. February 1540 Francisco Vásquez de Coronado and his army begin journey to seek Cibola, the Seven Cities of Gold. 1450 1500 July 1519–August 1521 Hernan Cortes conquers the Mexica (Aztec) Empire. 1550 November 1539 Fray Marcos de Niza and Estevan begin journey to prove Cibola does exist. 1600 50  Chapter 5 • The Second People: Explorers and Settlers