Chapter 7 Finding an Identity In the mid-1850s, the land in Arizona had no identity. It was still part of the Territory of New Mexico. Colorado City (now called Yuma), Tubac, and Tucson were the only three towns found in the land that would become Arizona. The population in this southern area grew slowly and the people felt isolated, alone and unprotected. The capital, or the place of the government, was far away in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The settlers wanted some protection, so they carried guns to defend themselves against outlaws. In 1854 the Gadsden Purchase was ratified between the United States and Mexico. This treaty granted the United States the land south of the Gila River. The land of the Gadsden Purchase provided a better route for the railroads that would soon arrive. Standards’ Vocabulary capital transcontinental Uncle Sam Manuelito Navajo Long Walk Confederate Union Sherod Hunter James Carleton Picacho Peak Abraham Lincoln Charles Poston 1851  Camp Yuma  established, Fort  Defiance established. 1854 Colorado  City founded by  Charles Poston. 1855 Lt. William  Emory makes first  scientific study of  Arizona’s plants  and animals. 1857–1859  Lt. Beale’s  party, with camels, builds  a road across northern  Arizona. 1850 1860 1852  Steamboat, “Uncle  Sam,” moves supplies up and  down the Colorado River to  and from Camp Yuma. December, 1854 Gadsden Purchase  ratified. 1857 Explorer Jacob  Hamblin explores  northeastern Arizona. 1858 Colorado City  changes name to Arizona  City, Butterfield Stage Line  arrives in Tucson. 72 Chapter 7 • Finding an Identity