berries. They were called Clovis People. They made their tools and weapons of stone and animal bone. Who were the first groups of people to live in Arizona? By 100 b.c. three major Indian cultures developed from the Paleo-Indians of early Arizona. A culture is a special way of living shared by a group of people. The Hohokam people lived in the central and southern deserts. The Anasazi people lived in the northeastern Arizona plateaus. The Mogollon people lived in the mountains of eastern Arizona. These were the largest early Indian cultures in Arizona. There were also smaller groups like the Salado who lived upstream along the Salt River, and the Sinagua who settled in the Verde Valley. Over 2,000 years ago, the Hohokam migrated to the southern and central valleys of Arizona. The name Hohokam is a Pima Indian word. It means that which has lost its use or value. The Hohokam People dug hundreds of miles of irrigation ditches. They irrigated their crops using water from the Salt, Gila, and Santa Cruz Rivers. They were the most skillful farmers ever to live in the early Southwest. The Hohokam Indians,  without the horse or steel  tools, hand-dug over 500  miles of irrigation canals  in the Salt and Gila River  Valleys. Many 21st century  canals follow the canal  routes first used by the  Hohokam. Prehistoric Hohokam Canal 1150 a.d.  Montezuma  Castle built in the Verde  Valley of Arizona by the Sinagua Indians. 500 a.d. 1000 a.d. 1500 a.d. 1450 a.d.  Paleo and Prehistoric Indian  cultures have disappeared from Arizona. Chapter 3 • The First People: Native Arizonans  29