Chapter 10 Water Water has always been a concern for Arizonans. The Indians settled near rivers in order to grow crops. They irrigated the dry desert land. This means that they built ditches called canals to bring the water from the rivers to the farms. The Hohokam Indians built canals to bring water from the Salt and Gila Rivers to their farms. Pueblo Grande Museum is one of the places in Phoenix where you can still see the ancient canal system. Many other Indians were nomads. They traveled from place to place to find food and water. About seven hundred years ago there was a long drought. A drought is a time of very little rain. Because there was so little rain, there was not enough water for the Indians to grow crops. They had to abandon their homes to find other places to live. One of these abandoned homes is called Montezuma Castle. The Sinagua Indians built it. It is just north of Camp Verde, Arizona in the Verde River Valley. Today it is known as Montezuma Castle National Monument. Standards’ Vocabulary irrigated canals nomads drought Montezuma Castle National Monument Newlands Reclamation Act Apache Trail aqueduct Arthur Powell Davis February 1891 Great flood roars through the Salt River Valley. June 1902 Newlands Reclamation Act becomes law. 1890 1900 102  Chapter 10 • Water