Many tribes ignored the orders to move to the new reservations. The United States Army was ordered to force the Native American people onto the reservations. In Arizona, the Apache Wars began as the army tried to force the Native Americans of Arizona onto the reservations. In 1859 the first Indian reservation was established in Arizona. It was called the Gila River Indian Reservation. Over the next 150 years another nineteen Indian reservations would be established in Arizona. The final Indian reservation created by the United States government was the Pascua Yaqui Reservation in 1978. Only the San Juan Southern Paiute Tribe, officially recognized in 1989, has no land reservation. Arizona’s Native American tribes today Twenty-one Native American tribes call Arizona their home. These 21 tribes add to the rich cultural diversity found throughout Arizona. The Native American reservations and tribal communities make up one-fourth of Arizona lands. According to the 2000 census, over 250,000 Native Americans make their home in Arizona. This map shows the location of the 21 Indian reservations of Arizona. Native Americans help keep America free Arizona’s Indian tribes have always been a great part of the American story. There is no greater example of their contribution to the United States than the story of the Navajo Code Talkers. A total of 420 Navajo men became code talkers. These United States Marines used their Navajo language to communicate battle orders that the enemy could not understand. The Navajo Code Talkers helped America win many Pacific Island battles of World War II. Chapter 14 • Indian Nations of Arizona in the 21st Century  141