George Washington Carver High School in Phoenix was the only high school in Arizona ever built solely for African American students. It opened in 1926 and was closed in 1954 when America’s public schools were integrated. Today it serves all the people of Arizona as a museum and cultural center. How did various minority groups contribute to Arizona’s history? Our state reflects its many cultures. Scottsdale’s Civic Plaza, designed by Benny Gonzales, shows Hispanic architecture in modern form. Fiestas are among our major celebrations. Children throughout Arizona break piñatas on special holidays, and tacos are as common as hot dogs. Southwest Indian artwork is valued throughout the world. Celebrations by Arizona’s Indians attract many tourists each year. Black soldiers first came to Arizona during the Apache Wars. The Indians called them Buffalo Soldiers. Black cowboys like John Swain and Nat Love came during territorial days. Many Chinese people came to build railroads. Others came to run businesses in mining camps and small towns. Each group of people migrated to Arizona for its own reasons. Migrate means to move from one place to another. All of them have helped build the Arizona traditions we share today. 110  Chapter 11 • Arizona’s People