Casa Grande National  Monument was built  sometime between  1300–1350 A.D. It was  the first prehistoric and  cultural site preserved  by the United States.  President Benjamin  Harrison signed the Casa  Grande Reservation Act on  June 22, 1892. It became  a national monument in  1918. It is located near  Coolidge, Arizona. HoHokam   Cultural   area The Hohokam cultural  area was located in central  and southern Arizona  as well as in northern  Mexico. The Hohokam grew beans, squash, and corn in their irrigated fields. Corn, also called maize, was their most important crop. So important was corn to the Indian people that it became part of their religious customs. The Hohokam People lived in pithouses dug into the ground. The houses were made of mud plastered over poles and bushes. The Hohokam later formed communities. They built large, aboveground homes made of stone and adobe brick. Casa Grande National Monument is an example of this kind of building. By 1450 a.d. the Hohokam culture had disappeared from the deserts of Arizona. The Pima and Tohono O’odham peoples are thought to be descendants of the Hohokam. You are a descendant of your parents and their parents before them. A person’s children are his or her descendants. The Anasazi lived in northeastern Arizona. The name Anasazi is a Navajo word that means “enemy’s ancestors.” The Anasazi hunted for food and grew corn, squash, and beans. They did not dig canals to irrigate their crops. They depended on rain. The Anasazi were also well-known basket makers. Later they became makers of beautiful pottery. Anasazi pottery was black-on-white in color. 30  Chapter 3 • The First People: Native Arizonans