What were the Crusades? In 1095 a.d. Pope Urban II, head of the Roman Catholic Church, ordered the kings of Europe to recapture the city of Jerusalem from the Muslim rulers. The knights of Europe gathered together and began the long trip to Jerusalem. There they fought the Muslim armies until they captured Jerusalem in July 1099. Jerusalem would remain under European Christian control for less than 200 years. On July 4, 1187 Jerusalem again fell to control of the Muslim armies. Christian kings throughout the 13th century would launch one crusade after another in an attempt to retake Jerusalem and the Holy Lands from their Muslim rulers. The last European crusade to the Holy Lands ended in defeat in 1291 a.d. For almost two hundred years European armies had lived and traveled in the lands of the Middle East. They ate new foods, bought new goods, and learned of the new ideas of the Arab cultures. Portugal sea routes led its sailors to the riches of India and other countries of the Orient. What were the new trade routes? The crusaders also had made contact with traders and people from lands called India and China. All these lands and people, first seen by the Europeans during the crusades, were places where new businesses, trade, and travel could be developed. With the chance to trade with the lands of India and China, great wealth would come to whatever European nation controlled the trade routes. But following land trade routes would mean having to travel across lands controlled by the Muslim rulers and armies. If a way by sea could be found to India and China, amazing wealth awaited the nation that first discovered and controlled the trade routes of the sea. 44  Chapter 4 • Arizona in the World